Where to Find Amsco Chapter 12 PDF: The Ultimate Resource for Studying American History
What is Amsco Chapter 12 and why you should download it
If you are studying American history, you might have come across Amsco Chapter 12 as one of your reading assignments. Amsco Chapter 12 is a chapter from American History: Connecting with the Past, a textbook written by Alan Brinkley. This chapter covers the period from 1815 to 1840, which is also known as the Age of Jackson or the Era of Good Feelings. It explores how America underwent profound changes in its economy, society, culture, politics, and religion during this time.
amsco chapter 12 pdf download
In this article, we will give you a summary of what Amsco Chapter 12 covers, as well as some reasons why you should download it as a pdf file. We will also provide you with some FAQs about Amsco Chapter 12 pdf download at the end. So, let's get started!
The Industrial Revolution and its impact on America
The Industrial Revolution was a process of technological innovation that began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread to other parts of Europe and North America in the early 19th century. It involved the use of machines, steam power, factories, railroads, and other inventions that increased productivity, efficiency, and output in various industries such as textiles, iron, coal, transportation, and communication.
The Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on America in several ways. First, it transformed the economy from an agricultural-based one to a more diversified one that included manufacturing, commerce, banking, and services. Second, it created new social classes such as capitalists, entrepreneurs, wage workers, immigrants, urban dwellers, and consumers. Third, it stimulated political debates over issues such as tariffs, internal improvements, labor rights, and corporate power. Fourth, it fostered a spirit of innovation, invention, and progress that shaped the American identity and culture.
The Market Revolution and its consequences
The Market Revolution was a term coined by historians to describe the expansion of markets, transportation, and communication in America during the first half of the 19th century. It involved the development of roads, canals, steamboats, railroads, telegraphs, and other infrastructures that connected different regions and facilitated the exchange of goods, people, and ideas. It also involved the growth of domestic and foreign trade, the emergence of a national market economy, and the integration of different sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and finance.
The Market Revolution had several consequences for America. First, it increased the mobility, opportunity, and diversity of Americans who could travel, migrate, or relocate to different areas for work, land, or adventure. Second, it enhanced the standard of living, consumption, and choice of Americans who could access a wider range of products, services, and information. Third, it intensified the competition, inequality, and instability of Americans who faced new challenges such as market fluctuations, business cycles, class conflicts, and social problems. Fourth, it generated new cultural and intellectual trends such as individualism, materialism, pragmatism, and reformism that reflected the values and aspirations of Americans.
The Second Great Awakening and its influence on reform movements
The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that swept across America from the 1790s to the 1840s. It involved the growth of various denominations such as Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Unitarians, Universalists, Mormons, and others that competed for converts and followers. It also involved the emergence of charismatic leaders such as Charles Finney, Lyman Beecher, Joseph Smith, William Miller, and others who preached revivalism, evangelism, millennialism and other doctrines that appealed to different audiences.
The Second Great Awakening had a significant influence on reform movements in America. First, it inspired a sense of moral responsibility and social activism among Americans who wanted to improve themselves and their society. Second, it sparked a series of crusades such as temperance, abolitionism women's rights education prison reform and others that aimed to eradicate various evils and injustices in America. Third, it fostered a sense of community and cooperation among Americans who formed various associations societies and organizations to support their causes. Fourth, it challenged the status quo and authority of Americans who faced resistance opposition and persecution from their opponents.
The emergence of new cultural and intellectual trends
The first half of the 19th century also witnessed the emergence of new cultural and intellectual trends in America that reflected the spirit of the age. Some of these trends were:
Romanticism: A literary and artistic movement that emphasized emotion imagination nature and individuality over reason logic tradition and society. Some of its prominent figures were Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper Edgar Allan Poe Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville.
Transcendentalism: A philosophical and religious movement that advocated self-reliance intuition spirituality and social reform over conformity materialism institutionalism and corruption. Some of its leading thinkers were Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Margaret Fuller Bronson Alcott and Walt Whitman.
Utopian communities: A social experiment that attempted to create ideal societies based on various principles such as equality cooperation harmony and simplicity. Some of its examples were New Harmony (Robert Owen) Brook Farm (George Ripley) Oneida (John Humphrey Noyes) Shakers (Ann Lee) and Mormons (Joseph Smith).
The growth of sectionalism and nationalism
Another major theme of Amsco Chapter 12 is the growth of sectionalism and nationalism in America during this period. Sectionalism refers to the loyalty or attachment to a particular region or section of the country over the nation as a whole. Nationalism refers to the pride or devotion to one's nation or its interests over those of other countries or regions. Both sectionalism and nationalism were influenced by various factors such as geography, economy, culture, politics, and religion.
Some of the issues that divided and united America along sectional lines were:
Slavery: The most contentious issue that pitted the North against the South was slavery. The North, which had largely abolished slavery by 1804, was increasingly opposed to slavery's expansion into the new territories acquired from the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican-American War. The South, which relied on slavery as the basis of its economy and society, was determined to protect its property rights and way of life. The conflict over slavery became a major source of sectional tension and eventually led to the Civil War.
Tariffs: Another issue that divided the North and the South was tariffs, or taxes on imported goods. The North, which had a more diversified and industrialized economy, favored high tariffs to protect its domestic manufacturers from foreign competition. The South, which had a more agricultural and export-oriented economy, opposed high tariffs because they raised the prices of consumer goods and reduced the demand for its cotton abroad. The controversy over tariffs reached a climax in 1828, when Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations, which imposed very high duties on many imported goods. The South protested vehemently against this tariff, calling it unconstitutional and oppressive. Some Southern states, especially South Carolina, threatened to nullify or secede from the Union over this issue.
Territorial expansion: A third issue that divided and united America was territorial expansion, or the acquisition of new lands for settlement and development. Both the North and the South supported the idea of manifest destiny, or the belief that America had a divine mission to spread democracy and civilization across the continent. However, they disagreed on whether slavery should be allowed or prohibited in the new territories. The North argued that slavery should be contained within its existing boundaries and eventually abolished. The South argued that slavery should be extended into the new territories as a matter of states' rights and equality. The debate over slavery in the territories became more heated after the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), which added vast lands in the Southwest to the United States.
The Jacksonian Era and its legacy
The last major theme of Amsco Chapter 12 is the Jacksonian Era and its legacy. This era refers to the period from 1828 to 1840, when Andrew Jackson dominated American politics as president and leader of the Democratic Party. Jackson was a controversial figure who aroused strong emotions among his supporters and opponents. He was seen by many as a champion of democracy, equality, and reform who defended the rights of the common people against the elites. He was also seen by many as a tyrant, a demagogue, and a violator of the Constitution who abused his power and ignored the law.
Some of the events and issues that defined the Jacksonian Era were:
The rise of popular politics and the election of 1828
One of the features of the Jacksonian Era was the rise of popular politics or the expansion of suffrage and political participation among white men who were not property owners or taxpayers. This was made possible by the elimination or reduction of property qualifications for voting in many states, the adoption of written ballots instead of voice votes, the creation of nominating conventions instead of caucuses, and the emergence of mass political parties that mobilized voters through newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, parades, and rallies.
The election of 1828 was one of the most bitter and personal presidential campaigns in American history. It pitted Andrew Jackson, a war hero and frontier leader from Tennessee, against John Quincy Adams, a diplomat and intellectual from Massachusetts. The two candidates represented different sections and interests of the country: Jackson appealed to the South and the West, as well as the farmers, workers, and immigrants; Adams appealed to the Northeast, as well as the merchants, manufacturers, and professionals. The two candidates also attacked each other's character and reputation: Jackson accused Adams of being a corrupt bargainer, an aristocrat, and a monarchist; Adams accused Jackson of being a murderer, an adulterer, and an illiterate. Jackson won a decisive victory over Adams, receiving 56 percent of the popular vote and 68 percent of the electoral vote.
The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears
One of the most controversial and inhumane policies of Jackson's presidency was the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This act authorized the president to negotiate treaties with Native American tribes east of the Mississippi River to exchange their lands for new lands in the west. The act was motivated by the desire of white settlers to expand into the fertile lands occupied by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes. It was also motivated by the belief of white Americans that Native Americans were savages who could not be civilized or assimilated.
The Indian Removal Act resulted in the forced relocation of tens of thousands of Native Americans from their ancestral homes to unfamiliar and often inhospitable territories. The most tragic example of this was the Trail of Tears, the name given to the journey of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Oklahoma in 1838-1839. About 16,000 Cherokees were driven from their homes by federal troops and state militias. They faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion along the way. About 4,000 Cherokees died on the trail.
The Nullification Crisis and the Tariff of Abominations
Another major crisis that Jackson faced during his presidency was the Nullification Crisis, a conflict between the federal government and the state of South Carolina over the issue of tariffs. Tariffs are taxes on imported goods that are meant to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. However, tariffs also raise the prices of consumer goods and reduce the demand for exports. The South, which imported most of its manufactured goods and exported most of its cotton, was hurt by high tariffs. The North, which produced most of its manufactured goods and consumed most of its cotton, was helped by high tariffs.
The conflict over tariffs reached a climax in 1828, when Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations, which imposed very high duties on many imported goods. The South protested vehemently against this tariff, calling it unconstitutional and oppressive. Some Southern states, especially South Carolina, threatened to nullify or secede from the Union over this issue. Nullification is the doctrine that states have the right to declare federal laws null and void within their borders if they deem them unconstitutional. Secession is the act of withdrawing from the Union and forming a separate nation.
Jackson opposed nullification and secession as threats to the integrity and authority of the Union. He declared that "the Union must be preserved" and that he would use force if necessary to enforce the federal laws. He also supported a compromise tariff that lowered some of the duties. The crisis was resolved in 1833, when Congress passed both the compromise tariff and a Force Bill that authorized the president to use military action against any state that resisted the federal laws. South Carolina accepted the compromise tariff but nullified the Force Bill, claiming a symbolic victory.
The Bank War and the Panic of 1837
The final major issue that Jackson dealt with during his presidency was the Bank War, a struggle between Jackson and his opponents over the Second Bank of the United States. The Second Bank was a national bank that was chartered by Congress in 1816 to regulate the money supply, issue banknotes, and provide credit to the government and businesses. The Bank had a lot of power and influence over the economy and politics of the country. It was also a source of corruption and favoritism, as it was controlled by a few wealthy elites who used it to benefit themselves and their allies.
Jackson distrusted and disliked the Bank, as he saw it as a monopoly that violated the rights of states and individuals. He also saw it as an enemy of democracy, as he believed it supported his political rivals such as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. He vowed to destroy the Bank by vetoing its recharter in 1832 and withdrawing federal deposits from it in 1833. He then transferred these deposits to various state banks, which became known as "pet banks."
The Bank War had serious consequences for the economy and politics of America. First, it weakened and eventually killed the Second Bank, which lost its charter in 1836 and went bankrupt in 1841. Second, it destabilized and inflated the money supply, as the pet banks issued too many banknotes and made too many loans without proper regulation or supervision. Third, it triggered an economic crisis known as the Panic of 1837, which lasted until 1843. The Panic was caused by several factors, such as a decline in cotton prices, a trade deficit with Britain, a crop failure in Europe, and a specie circular issued by Jackson's administration that required payment for public lands in gold or silver. The Panic led to a depression, a bank failure, a business collapse, The Whig Party and its opposition to Jackson
One of the outcomes of the Bank War was the emergence of the Whig Party as a national political force that opposed Jackson and his policies. The Whig Party was a coalition of various anti-Jackson groups, such as the National Republicans, the Anti-Masons, and some former Democrats. The Whig Party was led by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun, who were all prominent statesmen and critics of Jackson. The Whig Party advocated a strong federal government, a national bank, a protective tariff, and internal improvements. The Whig Party also appealed to the middle class, the urban population, and the evangelical Protestants.
The Whig Party faced several challenges in its efforts to defeat Jackson and his Democratic Party. First, it lacked a clear and consistent platform that could unify its diverse factions and regions. Second, it lacked a charismatic and popular leader who could match Jackson's appeal and personality. Third, it faced a loyal and organized opposition from the Democrats, who portrayed the Whigs as the party of the aristocracy, the corruption, and the privilege.
Despite these challenges, the Whig Party managed to win some electoral victories in the 1830s and 1840s. It won control of the House of Representatives in 1834 and 1840, and several state governments in the Northeast and the Midwest. It also won two presidential elections, in 1840 and 1848, with William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor, respectively. However, both Harrison and Taylor died in office, leaving their vice presidents, John Tyler and Millard Fillmore, to assume power. Both Tyler and Fillmore proved to be unpopular and ineffective leaders who alienated their own party and failed to advance its agenda.
The rise of Martin Van Buren and his presidency
The other outcome of the Bank War was the rise of Martin Van Buren as Jackson's successor and heir. Van Buren was a skilled politician and a close ally of Jackson who served as his secretary of state, vice president, and campaign manager. Van Buren was instrumental in building the Democratic Party as a national organization that mobilized voters through patronage, newspapers, conventions, and rallies. Van Buren also supported Jackson's policies on issues such as Indian removal, nullification, and the Bank.
Van Buren won the presidential election of 1836 with a comfortable margin over his four Whig opponents. However, he inherited a troubled economy that soon plunged into a depression after the Panic of 1837. Van Buren's response to the crisis was to follow Jackson's hard money policy and to oppose any federal intervention or relief. He proposed an independent treasury system that would separate the government's finances from those of private banks. He also maintained a strict neutrality in foreign affairs, avoiding any involvement in conflicts such as the Texas Revolution, the Canadian Rebellion, or the Aroostook War.
Van Buren's presidency was unpopular and unsuccessful, as he faced criticism and opposition from both Whigs and Democrats. He was blamed for the economic woes, the social unrest, and the political scandals that plagued his administration. He was also challenged by his own party members, such as Calhoun, who broke with him over slavery and Texas annexation. He lost his bid for re-election in 1840 to Harrison, who ran on a catchy slogan of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too."
The conclusion and summary of the main points
In conclusion, Amsco Chapter 12 covers a fascinating and turbulent period in American history that witnessed profound changes in various aspects of American life. Some of the main points that this chapter discusses are:
The Industrial Revolution and its impact on America's economy, society, politics, and culture.
The Market Revolution and its consequences for America's mobility, opportunity, diversity, competition